Aylesbury has a 15th Century coaching inn dating back to 1455, it's one of the best preserved in the country. Henry the VIII is said to have wooed Anne Boleyn there.
Its first marketplace was established in the 13th Century.
It was home to the Aylesbury Duck.
Aylesbury played an important role in the Civil war with local man John Hampden partially responsible for starting it!
The Cubit car was built in Aylesbury in the 1920's
Aylesbury was the home to the Friars music venue which was where David Bowie first brought Ziggy Stardust to life. It hosted some of the biggest bands of the 70's and 80's and still survives today.
The band Marillion were based in Aylesbury and wrote the song Market Square Heroes, referencing to the towns market place.
Still on a musical note... John Ottway and Wild Willy Barrett were born in Aylesbury.
Keith Richards appeared in Aylesbury Crown Court in 1973 on drugs charges.
Stoke Mandeville Hospital (located on the edge of Aylesbury) was the birthplace of the Paralympic games. Dr Ludwig Guttmann was a pioneer in the treatment of disabled people and founded the National Spinal Injuries Centre at Stoke Mandeville
Somewhat more obscure is that Rhoda Abbott was the only woman to fall into the freezing-cold water to survive the Titanic sinking. She was born in 1873 in Aylesbury.
Finally, the England football squad played a warm up game ahead of Euro 88 against non-league Aylesbury United. We lost 7-0
EDIT: I just realised that technically, Aylesbury isn't a village...